عنوان مقاله [English]
The problem of soul and body and their relation is from early time a matter of debate in philosophy in such a way that drew the attention of philosophers in all times and quarters. This problem discussed as mind-body problem in western circles of thought is one the most serious problems in the modern philosophy of mind. Despite all efforts made by contemporary philosophers of mind the problem has not so far received a reasonable and justified account. Also in Islamic Philosophy no reasonable explanation of the soul was given before Mulla Sadra. By introducing new philosophical principles such as fundamental reality of being, gradation of being and substantial motion, Mulla Sadra made a drastic change in whole philosophical problems including soul and related issues, providing solutions unprecedented in philosophy hitherto. He rejected the theory of eternity of soul and its spiritual origination and offered a new theory on soul’s coming to being which is known as “corporeal origination of the soul”. Accordingly the soul is changing substance which from its initial corporeality to its ultimate spirituality is in constant change and essential dynamism. On the ground of initial corporeality of the soul and its substantial motion Mulla Sadra envisage the relation of soul and body as organic and so human being as reality of degrees. It is on these lines that Sadra explains the mutual relations of soul and body.