عنوان مقاله [English]
The problem of unity or duality of soul and spirit is one of issues dealt with in discussions on soul in philosophy and Sharia scriptures; is human rational soul the same as spirit referred to in the Book and Hadith or they are different? This article attempts to review the terminology of soul and spirit and provide evidences for their identity. In Islamic hadiths there are references to the material spirit as spirit of life and spirit of the animal. This spirit lies in human body and comes to be with the actuality of the body. According to these hadiths human being is of two souls or spirits: a spirit which actualizes human body without which the body lose its vegetative life; another spirit referred to as spirit of intellect which is blown to corpus of human being and hence his life is formed. Philosophers, on the other hand, hold human rational soul to be distinctive factor which distinguishes him from other animals in a way that it forms human life. On these two points it can be clearly inferred that the "Qurānic blown spirit" referred to in hadiths as "spirit of intellect" is identical to human rational soul in the word of philosophy.