عنوان مقاله [English]
Deep analysis and explanation of epistemic foundations and principles of levels of being has been made in theoretical mysticism the masterpiece of which belongs to Ibn ʿArabī. His view of Being and the way of emergence of multiplicity and its hierarchical levels is based on three components: manifestation of Names, manifestation in Divine Essence, and the notion of antithesis and intermarriage (tanakoh) of the Names.
Although the notion of antithesis of Names and Attributes is based upon all three aforementioned components, its actualization in external entities depends on apparent incompatibility of manifestations of these Names and Attributes in material world which is a continuation of that antithesis disclosed wholly in the world of elements. On the basis of correspondence of the Worlds and dominance of Names and Attributes, however, antithesis of existing entities originates from immutable archetypes in the level of Unity and under the influence of disclosure of Names and Attributes which brings about all sorts of opposition in levels of being in general and material world in particular. All entities and happenings of the material world come into being on the ground of the antithesis of Names and Attributes which are constantly in manifestation and disclosure, actualizing good and evil occurrences as well as opposite and conflicting entities of material world.